December 2011 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomaly Update

NEW LOOK

For most of the graphs, I’ve added another curve with the data smoothed using a 13-month running-average filter. The exceptions are the weekly NINO3.4 and Global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomaly graphs, and the monthly ones for the East Pacific and the Rest-of-the-World (Atlantic-Indian-West Pacific) data. Let me know whether you prefer the graphs with the additional smoothed data or the old version.

IN THE SPOTLIGHT

The sea surface temperature anomalies in all basins dropped this month, which is somewhat novel, but the graph that stood out most for me this month was the one for the South Atlantic. Its low this year is lower than the seasonal lows for most years going back to the unusual 1996/97 dip and rebound. Does this mean the South Atlantic is returning to its former level before that unexplained upward shift over the past few years?

(8) South Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(0 to 60S, 70W to 20E)

Monthly Change = -0.042 deg C

Note: I discussed the (now apparently temporary) upward shift in the South Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature anomalies in the post The 2009/10 Warming Of The South Atlantic. It looks as though the South Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies MAYreturn to the level they were at before that surge, and where they had been since the late 1980s. We’ll have to see where things settle.

MONTHLY SST ANOMALY MAP

The following is a Global map of Reynolds OI.v2 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies for December 2011 downloaded from the NOMADS website. The contour levels are set at 0.5 deg C, and white is set at zero.

December 2011 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies Map

(Global SST Anomaly = +0.053 deg C)

MONTHLY OVERVIEW

Typically, ENSO events peak in December and January, so the Monthly NINO3.4 Sea Surface Temperature anomalies may have reached their low for the 2011/12 ENSO season. The Monthly NINO3.4 SST Anomaly dropped slightly (about 0.025 deg C) to -0.948 deg C.

Sea Surface Temperature anomalies for both hemispheres dropped again in December, with the declines about the same in both hemispheres. The monthly Global Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are presently at +0.053 deg C.

(1) Global Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

Monthly Change = -0.035 deg C

####################################

(2) NINO3.4 Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

(5S-5N, 170W-120W)

Monthly Change = -0.025 deg C

####################################

THE EAST PACIFIC VERSUS THE REST OF THE WORLD

The East Pacific and the Rest-Of-The-World (Atlantic-Indian-West Pacific) datasets were first discussed in the post Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies – East Pacific Versus The Rest Of The World.Both datasets have been adjusted for the impacts of volcanic aerosols. The global oceans were divided into these two subsets to illustrate two facts. First, the linear trend of the volcano-adjusted East Pacific (90S-90N, 180-80W) Sea Surface Temperature anomalies since the start of the Reynolds OI.v2 dataset is basically flat. The East Pacific linear trend varies with each monthly update. But it won’t vary significantly between El Niño and La Niña events.

(3) Volcano-Adjusted East Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(90S-90N, 180-80W)

####################################

And second, the volcano-adjusted Sea Surface Temperature anomalies for the Rest of the World (90S-90N, 80W-180) rise in very clear steps, in response to the significant 1986/87/88 and 1997/98 El Niño/La Niña events. It also appears as though the Sea Surface Temperature anomalies of this dataset are making another upward shift in response to the most recent ENSO event. For those who are interested in the actual trends of the Sea Surface Temperature anomalies between the 1986/87/88 and 1997/98 El Niño events and between the 1997/98 and 2009/10 El Niño events refer to Figure 4 in Does The Sea Surface Temperature Record Support The Hypothesis Of Anthropogenic Global Warming? I further described (at an introductory level) the ENSO-related processes that cause these upward steps in the post ENSO Indices Do Not Represent The Process Of ENSO Or Its Impact On Global Temperature.

(4) Volcano-Adjusted Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies For The Rest of the World

(90S-90N, 80W-180)

####################################

The periods used for the average Rest-Of-The-World Sea Surface Temperature anomalies between the significant El Niño events of 1982/83, 1986/87/88, 1997/98, and 2009/10 are determined as follows. Using the NOAA Oceanic Nino Index(ONI) for the official months of those El Niño events, I shifted (lagged) those El Niño periods by six months to accommodate the lag between NINO3.4 SST anomalies and the response of the Rest-Of-The-World Sea Surface Temperature anomalies, then deleted the Rest-Of-The-World data that corresponds to those significant El Niño events. I then averaged the Rest-Of-The-World SST anomalies between those El Niño-related gaps.

The “Nov 2010 to Present” average varies with each update. As noted in the post Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies – East Pacific Versus The Rest Of The World, it will be interesting to see where that Sea Surface Temperature anomaly average settles out, if it does, before the next significant El Niño drives them higher.

Of course, something could shift. Will the upward ratcheting continue when the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) decides to turn around and start its decline? The upward steps would not continue in the North Atlantic, but would the AMO impact the upward steps in other portions of the globe? For more information about the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, refer to the post An Introduction To ENSO, AMO, and PDO — Part 2.

The Sea Surface Temperature anomalies of the East Pacific Ocean, or approximately 33% of the surface area of the global oceans, have decreased slightly since 1982 based on the linear trend. And between upward shifts, the Sea Surface Temperature anomalies for the rest of the world (67% of the global ocean surface area) remain relatively flat. Anthropogenic forcings are said to be responsible for most of the rise in global surface temperatures over this period, but the Sea Surface Temperature anomaly graphs of those two areas prompt a two-part question: Since 1982, what anthropogenic global warming processes would overlook the Sea Surface Temperatures of 33% of the global oceans and have an impact on the other 67% but only during the months of the significant El Niño events of 1986/87/88, 1997/98 and 2009/10?

EAST INDIAN-WEST PACIFIC

I’ve eliminated the presentation and discussion of the East Indian-West Pacific data. It seemed redundant with the Rest-Of-The World data discussed above, and would have detracted from it. I’ll leave this notice up for a few more months, then delete it.

NOTE ABOUT THE DATA

The MONTHLY graphs illustrate raw monthly OI.v2 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE anomaly data from December 1981 to December 2011, as it is presented by the NOAA NOMADS website linked at the end of the post. I’ve added the 13-month running-average filter to smooth out the seasonal variations.

MONTHLY INDIVIDUAL OCEAN AND HEMISPHERIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE UPDATES

(5) Northern Hemisphere Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

Monthly Change = -0.034 deg C

####################################

(6) Southern Hemisphere Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

Monthly Change = -0.035 deg C

####################################

(7) North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(0 to 70N, 80W to 0)

Monthly Change = -0.003 deg C

####################################

(9) North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(0 to 65N, 100E to 90W)

Monthly Change = -0.045 Deg C

####################################

(10) South Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(0 to 60S, 120E to 70W)

Monthly Change = -0.015 deg C

####################################

(11) Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(60S to 30N, 20E to 120E)

Monthly Change = -0.060 deg C

####################################

(12) Arctic Ocean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(65N to 90N)

Monthly Change = -0.073 deg C

####################################

(13) Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

(90S-60S)

Monthly Change = -0.087 deg C

####################################

WEEKLY SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES

The weekly NINO3.4 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies have not begun their rise from the low of this La Niña event. The NINO3.4 Sea Surface Temperature anomaly based on the week centered on January 4, 2012 is -0.981 deg C.

(14) Weekly NINO3.4 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

####################################

The weekly global Sea Surface Temperature anomalies dropped considerably over the past few weeks and are at +0.012 deg C. Curiously, even though this La Niña event was not as strong as the one that occurred last year, the low for the weekly global sea surface temperatures this year are lower than last.

(15) Weekly Global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomalies

####################################

ABOUT: Bob Tisdale – Climate Observations

SOURCE

The Reynolds Optimally Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature Data (OISST) are available through the NOAA National Operational Model Archive & Distribution System (NOMADS).

http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/pdisp_sst.sh

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About Bob Tisdale

Research interest: the long-term aftereffects of El Niño and La Nina events on global sea surface temperature and ocean heat content. Author of the ebook Who Turned on the Heat? and regular contributor at WattsUpWithThat.
This entry was posted in SST Update. Bookmark the permalink.

30 Responses to December 2011 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Anomaly Update

  1. Pascvaks says:

    Bob -
    Prefer the new graphs above with the additional smoothed data. Best!

  2. Pascvaks says:

    Bob –
    Perhaps Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temp Anomoly “dips” below ’0′ are cold enough, and the area is extensive enough, to impact global ocean conveyor South Atlantic Sea Surface Temp Anomolies? Seems temp and area of SOSSTA impact SASSTA?

  3. Bob Tisdale says:

    Pascvaks: Thanks for your input on the new graph format. I’m still perplexed by the surge in the South Atlantic for the past few years. Have you run across any papers that discussed how the recent increase in Antarctic sea ice would impact ACC circulation?

  4. Philip Bradley says:

    I looked into SH sea ice extent impact on SSTs some time ago and as far as I could tell there is no adjustment for sea ice extent. Therefore, increasing sea ice will decrease the area of cold ocean included in the SST average, and hence tend to increase the average Southern Ocean SSTs.

    Assuming SSTs change in synch with sea ice extent, the net effect will be to under-estimate cooling and over-estimate warming.

    But perhaps Bob knows more.

  5. Joe's World says:

    Bob,

    Currently in Canada, water is defying the temperature data and is cooling and forming ice even though the average temperature for this period is above normal.
    The solar angle of radiation is at a different angle and we are experiencing more time frame of non solar influence on the water due to time of night to day.
    So, water is influenced more with solar angles than temperatures in the atmosphere.
    This is not defined in the temperature data and temperature data cannot show this.

  6. Bob Tisdale says:

    Philip Bradley: Thanks for the reply. My question to Pascvaks was more towards how an increase in the Antarctic sea ice extent would change the flow patterns of the massive current (the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) that circles it, and whether that could be the cause of the strange upward blip in the South Atlantic SST anomalies. I haven’t run across a paper like that yet.

  7. Bob Tisdale says:

    Joe’s World says: “Currently in Canada, water is defying the temperature data and is cooling and forming ice even though the average temperature for this period is above normal…”

    I’m not sure where you’re going with this discussion of the seasonal cycle, Joe’s World. Surface temperature anomalies don’t freeze water. While the temperature may be above normal, it’s still below freezing.

  8. Philip Bradley says:

    Bob, if its not obvious, sea ice is excluded from SST calculations and increasing sea ice will decrease the area SSTs are calculated from and the area excluded is the coldest. Thus biasing Southern Ocean SSTs warm.

  9. Bob Tisdale says:

    Philip Bradley, the Reynolds Optimum Interpolation sea surface temperature dataset is a satellite-based product from NOAA. Due to the “global” coverage, they have adjustments for sea ice concentration. Refer to the following paper:
    ftp://ftp.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/cmb/sst/papers/oiv2pap/oiv2.pdf

    And I believe one of the byproducts of this SST dataset is a sea ice cover dataset.

  10. E.M.Smith says:

    I think you need to look at the wind velocity around the southern ocean. As it picks up, the southern circumpolar current flows faster. That then whacks into the Drake Passage. Higher velocity into a fixed gate diverts more cold southern water up the Chile coast (to eventually cool the central Pacific… which, with about an 18 year lag, eventually reaches the Arctic up near Alaska… so your North Pacific will lag south in time frame. One of the “problems” with simple ‘global averages’ is it ignores relative time lags among the parts and hides the mechanisms of the cycles…)

    On the other side of Drake Passage, higher water velocity through the passage spins up the South Atlantic gyre and sucks more equatorial warm water via the Brazil current down to right where you are seeing a warm spot now next to Argentina:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:South_Atlantic_Gyre.png

    Given enough years for a few rotations of the South Atlantic, the whole thing will finally cool off.

    Basically, you are comparing large areas and need to look more at “comes from / goes to” on the ocean current and relative time lags to avoid averaging away the interesting bits… IMHO.

    I think you can see some of this in the averages you do use. Southern Ocean cooling first, Arctic not yet. Indian Ocean staying hot as the circumpolar current mostly drives a venturi pulling hot Pacific water past Indonesia (so must wait for east Pacific to cool first).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Corrientes-oceanicas.gif

    Similar problems in other “hot” areas. They are ‘downstream’ from warmer parts of the ocean so must wait for the upstream areas to cool first, (for now the added velocity just feeds them more warm water quicker.) If you look at it with time lags and “what is upstream ” in mind, then ask “what happens if the whole thing starts rotating a bit faster from cold injections at the southern circumpolar current” I think it all fits fairly well.

    Just my humble opinion from looking at it (and not in enough depth… so be gentle ;-)

  11. Bob Tisdale; regarding southern Atlantic cooling, is the best example;when people are obsessed by the phony GLOBAL warming and CO2; they cannot see the real happenings: I think was January 2010, chunk of ice has bracken of Antarctic’s coast / large as Texas / that ice was permanently there for over 200 years. That ice was insulating the water from the tremendous coldness in the air. Currents were bringing warmer water from the north – ice as insulator was shielding it from the coldness – that water by the currents was going north again /WARMER. Less ice as insulator > those currents are because of minus that ice sheet is bringing colder water to south Atlantic – reason for last couple years Brazil was experiencing droughts. (those colder currents were cooling the water north > less evaporation = less rain Bob, people started to adopt already many of my theories / facts and proofs – don’t be the last one..

  12. Pingback: Actual Temperatures conflict with “Global Warming” | The GOLDEN RULE

  13. Bob Tisdale says:

    E.M.Smith: I just wished we had more SST data for the Southern Ocean. 30 years is not enough. The Southern Ocean is the hub, and we know nothing about it’s long-term variations.

  14. Pascvaks says:

    Bob -
    Sorry for long delay, couldn’t find anything of note re your question above and each time I tried to input my old HP went south. FWIW to your followers who may want some background on the ACC (Antarctic Circumpolar Current) -

    - http://www.springerlink.com/content/m668732q8m15l192/
    Journal of Oceanography
    DOI: 10.1007/s10872-011-0093-5
    “Long-term variations of surface and intermediate waters in the southern Indian Ocean along 32°S” by Taiyo Kobayashi, Keisuke Mizuno and Toshio Suga (Paywall)
    Abstract
    Variations of water properties in surface and intermediate layers along 32°S in the southern Indian Ocean were examined using a 50-year (1960–2010) time series reproduced from historical hydrographic and Argo data by using optimum interpolation. Salinity in the 26.7–27.3σθ density layer decreased significantly over the whole section, at a maximum rate of 0.02 decade−1 at 26.8–26.9σθ, for the 50-year average. Three deoxygenating cores were identified east of 75°E, and the increasing rate of apparent oxygen utilization in the most prominent core (26.9–27.0σθ) exceeded 0.05 ml l−1 decade−1. The pycnostad core of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and the salinity minimum of Antarctic Intermediate Water shifted slightly toward the lighter layers. Comparisons with trans-Indian Ocean survey data from 1936 suggest that the tendencies found in the time series began before 1960. Interestingly, cores of many prominent trends were located just offshore of Australia at 26.7–27.0σθ, which is in the SAMW density range. Spectrum analysis revealed that two oscillation components with time scales of about 40 and 10 years were dominant in the subsurface layers. Our results are fairly consistent with, and thus support, the oceanic responses in the southern Indian Ocean to anthropogenic climate change predicted by model studies.

    - http://oceancurrents.rsmas.miami.edu/southern/antarctic-cp.html
    General Info

  15. Bob Tisdale says:

    Pascvaks, thanks very much for the link.

  16. nevket240 says:

    http://www.abc.net.au/rural/news/content/201201/s3411337.htm

    Bob. T.
    just a short mention on the La Nina. Notice the mention of models.
    rehards

  17. Bob Tisdale says:

    nevket240: I’m not sure that they’d need a model to tell them the ENSO event would weaken after December or January. That’s when they normally weaken. One would suspect the climate models they’re referring to are the ENSO prediction models, which as a whole don’t look very good. Refer to pages 27-29 of the weekly NOAA ENSO update:
    http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/lanina/enso_evolution-status-fcsts-web.pdf

    Regards

  18. Baa Humbug says:

    G’morning from Brisbane Bob.

    I thought you may be interested in this new paper

    “Causes of the Rapid Warming of the North Atlantic ocean in the mid 1990s
    Jon Robson* and Rowan Sutton”

    Surprisingly (for me) the authors are from AGW alarmist central, Uni of Reading, Max Planc and Hadley.
    Though only the abstract is available (unless you got a spare $25), I managed to find a poster presentation in pdf.

    http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00443.1

    http://www.met.reading.ac.uk/~swr06jir/presentations/JIR_RW_poster.pdf

    I hope the paper is of some value to you.

    p.s. Frank Lansner has a new post at Jo Novas. Your input would be much appreciated if you have a few spare minutes.

    All the best, love your work.

  19. Pascvaks says:

    FWIW – Ref SAtlantic
    Found this interesting at:
    http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/pdisp_sst.sh?ctlfile=monoiv2.ctl&varlist=on&new_window=on&ptype=ts&dir=
    display plot: monoiv2.ctl
    ssta *Olv2 SST monthly anomaly (C) rel to 1971-2000
    Level 1
    averaging 14 point time mean t… t+13
    scaling none
    nov81 – dec11
    Lat -60 to 0, Lon -30 to 15
    Plot Sz 800×600
    Plot Link:
    http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/pdisp_sst.sh?ctlfile=monoiv2.ctl&ptype=ts&var=ssta&level=1&op1=14tave&op2=none&month=nov&year=1981&fmonth=dec&fyear=2011&lat0=-60&lat1=0&lon0=-30&lon1=15&plotsize=800×600&title=&dir=

    Would think that the impact on the NAtlantic will be chilling.

  20. Pascvaks says:

    Bob -
    Don’t mean to waste your time but found this of interest, something you’re probably all too familiar with:

    http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/pdisp_sst.sh?ctlfile=monoiv2.ctl&ptype=ts&var=ssta&level=1&op1=12tave&op2=none&month=nov&year=1981&fmonth=dec&fyear=2011&lat0=-10&lat1=10&lon0=-180&lon1=180&plotsize=800×600&title=&dir=

    Seems this plot removes the continents and gives a view of the equator +/-10. Didn’t know it “changed” so much over time. If the plot is correct, things around the Earth’s waist seem to be cooling too.

  21. Bob Tisdale says:

    Pascvaks: From what I can tell, you’re link illustrates sea surface temperature anomalies for the latitudes of 10S-10N. The greatest part of the variations come from the equatorial Pacific, with the Atlantic and Indian Oceans responding to the El Nino and La Nina events. I just checked and the data has a reasonable positive trend of about 0.03 deg C per decade. But it would flatten considerably with some corrections for volcanic aerosols.

    Regards

  22. Pascvaks says:

    Bob-
    I’m dumber than a stump about all this, so ignore me if I sound like an idiot:

    Ref my last @10:06 – Solar Sunspot Minimums correspond to the highest anomaly temps “>0.6″, Sunspot Maximums correspond to a lazy “W” up-and-down motion between “0″ and “0.6″ that’s pretty much middle temps on the graph. What do you think is happening to cause the losest temps to show up on this graph? Looks like some kind of ‘fall and bounce’ from the SST high temps during Solar Min that then rise as the new sunspot cycle begins. Hope I’m not confusing you. (Put me on “HOLD” if I’m keeping you from more important work;-)

  23. Pascvaks says:

    Mea Culpa -
    Should read – “Ref my last @10:06 – Solar Sunspot Minimums correspond to the highest anomaly temps “0.5 or >″, Sunspot Maximums correspond to a lazy “W” up-and-down motion between “0″ and “0.4″ that’s pretty much middle temps on the graph. ” etc.

  24. Bob Tisdale says:

    Pascvaks: I’ve never used the 12-month smoothing option on NOMADS as you have shown. So it took me a few minutes to figure out why I was initially getting different results. The major variations appear to align with ENSO events.

  25. Pascvaks says:

    Bob – Thank you for taking the time to look and reply; don’t mean to be a pest.

  26. Pascvaks says:

    Bob – (A little ‘Cosmic Ray and SSTA Correlation’ FYI)
    Ref – http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/webform/query.cgi?startdate=1981/11/01&starttime=00:00&enddate=2012/01/28&endtime=19:03&resolution=14400&picture=on

    Data query Info from Main Page at “http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi” -
    Start Date: 1981/11/01
    Start Time: 00:00
    End Date: 2012/01/28
    End Time:
    Time resolution: 10 Days
    Notes:
    Download as file:
    Generate chart: X

  27. Bob Tisdale says:

    Pascvaks: You’ll have to plot them on the same graph. I don’t see the relationship from the graph you’ve provided me.

  28. Pascvaks says:

    Bob – Hope this is will clarify what I think I’m picking up and asking for your feedback about. (It appears that the effect of changes in CR flow has an “immidiate”(?) effect on the Equatorial Ocean Temps?). The first link shows the SSTA for +/- 2 degrees at the Equator in ocean temps; the second link, CR incidence (all be it from Finland;-). Both charts are for the period Jul 96 to Jan 98. I don’t believe that there is any significance to what time period is used. This period seemed to be one of the easiest to use to show the relationship that I think I see, not that it’s new to anyone but me, and I just wanted to see if I was on the right planet (ballpark;-).

    First Chart –
    http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/pdisp_sst.sh?ctlfile=monoiv2.ctl&ptype=ts&var=ssta&level=1&op1=none&op2=none&month=jul&year=1996&fmonth=jan&fyear=1998&lat0=-2&lat1=2&lon0=-180&lon1=180&plotsize=800×600&title=&dir=

    Second Chart –
    http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/webform/query.cgi?startdate=1996/07/01&starttime=00:00&enddate=1998/01/01&endtime=17:11&resolution=44640&picture=on

    __________
    Chart One data: (http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/pdisp_sst.sh?ctlfile=monoiv2.ctl&varlist=on&new_window=on&ptype=ts&dir)
    Display plot: monoiv2.ctl
    Field: ssta *Olv2 SST monthly anomaly (C) rel to 1971-2000
    Level 1
    Averaging (None)
    Scaling (None)
    Jul96-Jan98
    Lat -2 to 2, Lon -180 to 180
    Plot Sz 800×600

    Chart Two data (http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/)
    Start Date: 1996/07/01
    Start Time: 00:00
    End Date: 1998/01/01
    End Time:
    Time resolution: 1 Month
    Notes: (NA)
    Download as file:
    Generate chart: X
    __________

    PS: I really am very dim about what you do so well. I’m just one of those people that can’t seem to get it out of my head that the BIGGEST Kahona in the neighborhood influences pretty much everything in the neighborhood. Thanks again!

  29. Pascvaks says:

    Bob – “Consider the Source”;-(
    and “I’ve been sitting here all day trying to put my finger on this, but…”
    Tried to get another section of equator SSTA to fit with the cosmic ray data and couldn’t match it as well as the first example. Unless “something” jumps out at you, or “rings a bell”, about what I’ve been trying to say don’t waste your time with any of this, please. The “simple fit” I tried to give you isn’t simple at all and there’s too much to calculate and consider for my ability to do anything intelligent.

  30. Pascvaks says:

    Bob: FYI found this surfing for Global Ocean Temp related items. No doubt you’ve seen it already, back when it came out. Thought the relation to Cosmic Rays interesting (upside down view of Sun Spot graphs), and Global Ocean Temp Anomalies.

    http://www.leif.org/research/POES%20Power%20and%20IHV.pdf

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