in men. σωμα ους WT-OS WT WT-a WT-WV ω-σι # WT-a OT-a WT E ENGLISH-GRBEK, LESSONS IN FRENCH. No. LXXVIII. By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. $ 128.-The INFINITIVE. Vouloir tromper le ciel, c'est folie To wish to deceive heaven, is folly à la terre. LA FONTAINE. There are neuter nouns which belong to this ciass. The L'ardeur de vaincre, cède à la The ardour of conquest (to constem of these neuter nouns ends in r and in it, as yala, milk, peur de mourir. CORNEILLE. quer), yields to the fear of death (to yalakt-os, of milk. As the laws of euphony do not endure a die). For at the end of a word, the q and the kt disappear in Hair est un tourment, To hate is a torment. BéCUR. (2.) The infinitive is often used substantively :- Ou plutôt, que ne puis-je au Or rather, why can I not at the doux tomber du jour ? sweet close of the day? LAMARTINE. (3.) The infinitive present is used in French after certain D. σωμάτ-ι 1 γονάτ-ι γαλακτ-ι verbs, which are, in English, joined to other verbs by the conA. σωμα γονυ γαλα ους junction and :oopia γονυ γαλα ους Allez chercher mon père. 1 Go and fetch my father. (4.) We might give as a general rule, that a verb imme- diately preceded and governed by another verb (avoir and étre A. σωμάτ-α yovăr-a γαλακτ-α excepted), or by a preposition (en excepted), is put in the V. σωμάτ-α yovăr-a γαλακτ-α present of the infinitive : -D. N.A.V. σωμάτ-ε yovă r- € γαλακτ-ε € Tout ce qu'elle s'imaginait tenir, All that she fancied that she held, G.D. σωμάτ-ριν γονάτ-ουν ! γαλακτ- οιν lui échappait tout-à-coup. escaped her suddenly. FénéLon. Like γονυ (stem γονατ) decline το δορυ, « opear, δοράτος, Vos raisons sont trop bonnes Your reasons are too good in δοράτι, &c. ; dat. pl. δοράσι. d'elles-mêmes, sans être appuyées themselves to need that foreign asde ces secours étrangers. sistance. RACINE, You think that you know everyo PIEYRE, thing. Croit-il le pouvoir rompre ! Does he believe he can break it? TH. CORNEILLE. gated. passive voice, requires the use of the active verb in the Pypa, pnuăros, a thing spoken, Pavlos, n, ov, radically bad. following and similar cases wherein the English use the passive a word. voice : Cette dame est bien à plaindre. That lady is much to be pitied. in the plural, goods, pro- ruuvalw, I exercise. Cette maison est à vendre. This house is to be sold. La chose est de trop peu de con- The matter is of too little conseΙδρως, ιδρωτος, o, sweat. ETTEVÕw, I hasten. séquence pour la traiter sérieuse- quence to be treated seriously. VOLTAIRE. § 129.—GOVERNMENT OF VERBS. I touch (gen.) Some verbs are in English governed by prepositions different from those which connect or govern the same verbs in French. Ικετης, ου ό, an entreater, pe- Γευομαι, I taste (gen.) Some, again, which are in English joined by prepositions, titioner. Alapeußoual, I exchange. require none between them in Frenoh. We give below lists EXERCISES.--GREEK-ENGLISH, of verbs with the appropriate prepositions, according to the best French authorities. Εν χαλεποις πραγμασιν ολιγοι εταιροι πιστοι εισιν. . Tns § 130.-VERBS REQUIRING NO PREPOSITION BEFORE ANOTHER αρετης πλουτον ου διαμειβομεθα τους χρημασιν. Οι εκεται των VERB IN THE INFINITIVE. γονατων άπτονται. “ο θανατος εστι χωρισμος της ψυχής και του | Accourir, to run Observer, to notice, lo observe Oser, to dare Paraître, to seem Penser, to think, to funcy Pouvoir, to be able σπενδουσιν. Εθιζε και γυμναζε το σωμα συν πονοις και ιδρωτι. Ανouer, to confess Prétendre, to pretend Préférer, to prefer Protester, to protect Rappeler (se), to remember ωτων ουχ άπτονται. Τοις ωσιν ακουομεν. Μη εχθαιρε φιλον μικρου | Croire, to believe Rapporter, to report αμαρτηματος ενεκα. Γευου, ω παι, του γαλακτος Οι στρατιωται Declarer, to declare Reconnaître, to acknowledge Regarder, to look at δορατα βασταζουσιν. . Désirer, to desire Retourner, to return Revenir, to come back Ecouter, to hear, to lister Savoir, to know Sembler, lo seem Envoyer, to send Sentir, to feel Souhaiter, to wish Soutenir, to maintain Témoigner, to testify fight with (dat.) spears. I do not exchange the wealth of Imaginer (s'), to imagine Valoir mieux, to be better Venir, lo come Voir, to see Nier, to deny Vouloir, to be willing THE POPULAR EDUCATOR. Je puthucda vous freder cornino I sulenil to treat you on my own beginning and in the middle of the words. Welcher Regenschirm haben Sie 11 AIN cannot be right. It should be Welchen, accusative masculine to agree with And the Rhine will go and sell Regenschirm. We have not time or room to point out more mistakes. the 1* ww its *****, brfore the D. D. CAUSALITY: For something of the Art of Photography, see the Anya favore sortant de morodos vomiy bry swiness leaves Majesty's inspector of weights and Measures in your own district.-A. ** Magazine of Art," For proving your Apothecaries weights, apply to her Hilla, LISTEN (1): We know of no cure for lisping but a strong effort of the will to speak without lisping.-R. LAMBIB (Glasgow): Cassell's French IN Vwna HRMING ruu ProstriON « verORE AN Vietlonary will be completed in two divisions-, French-English, whicle INFINITIVA is now published, price 45, in stiff covers, or 5s in cloth. The English. French Division will be completed in December. The entire work will be There's places der the verb shows it to be retlectivo. published, bound, at 8s. 60.-8. GRANAN (Liverpool): We have had lessons Abaitav isl, 4* Kore, dure a lire, Pending, on Floriculture and Horticulture in view ; and we shall by no means lose sight of them.-J. M. (Aberdeen!: We have seen some American (U. S.) publications on Book-keeping, and they are so extremely similar to our own, A lepe that it is very evident that brother Jonathan is indebted to us for this as well as many other lessons relating to the business of human life. There is one ditferener which must be exrefully looked into, vie., that of Federal ditie, fun veicu, H**** made We ins:ead of Sterling Money. When we come to Exchanges in our Ninter, ta en Allthinetie, this will be considered; and we shall soon gire an duing of it kimwer is', A ADW one's wurdher be head of Bruttur. As to the coa version of the money of differes Taungunt inváve every woman's so Aaitas, see Rein's " t°ntversal Camise," or Macculloch's Consercial l'ilor ary,Nes WARDLE Dean Wills): Right. inglywed ni ti preglede Wet; Hubewer i* l de la wetu APOLLO cheltraham) should apply to R. Cocks and Co., New Berliaçtae Haunter elnur at Musical lestruments, ke-1 Cuore Eartard : HN 95 **** are now and white cvasidered.-J. HOLLDEX, Jr E4.37.: The Parte dira estatt is from li je to is'-Ixects:T:TE Livet. PA*** WB. the word in the seated ces to which be reters on the we were says s * are dear mulbonities for exceitace of styje, se saş Assad's the sportsbuk," in Au wnio generals : Des **'* G haver's Tra** ais ritungs rezerty; an. Dr. Sumsel 1328.80ls vitre av were *** :* the" Ramber and will ass geeny. Nakay ou 26 want to die ***** soveta". ** *9*Se stywe buite opaz: we as; Wade Widodhetare que ! Bu yerde we Ni Jaana N***, Prahessur Fax. tre res. ***** A reser's KL-H. S: We cas: The puts referred trom seats 3*: the det, so word Vidze 47** (hearty the sease. 233 sek. Isa Is are a sa tee ** ** - greta**. This video: Barces of tea and 12920 INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC.-No. II. mark it; you can then take 5.5 inches from the scale and mark it in a straight line with the former ; then the whole THE PLANE SCALE; ITS CONSTRUCTION AND USE. length will be that of the line of 11.5 inches required. Under the line or rule thus described, there is another consisting of In our first lesson on Instrumental Arithmetic, we explained six inches divided into 5 equal parts, and having these parts the nature and use of an apparatus called the Neperian Abacus. I in like manner subdivided into tenth parts. These parts are In this lesson, we propose to explain the construction and use | marked at every large division, thus : 10, 20, 30, &c., which of the Plane Scale. This scale is usually found in a case or means 10 hundredths, 20 hundredths, 30 hundredths, &c., of 8 box of Mathematical Instruments, and is one of the most foot, or 1 tenth, 2 tenths, 3 tenihs, &c., of a foot. This, then, useful inventions we know for the purpose of the practical is a decimal scale of a foot, containing tenths and hundredths Mathematician, the Artist, the Mechanical Draughtsman, and of a foot without regard to inches ; and from it you may lay the Designer and Drawer of Plans, whether relating to Archi- down or measure lengths of lines very accurately to hundredths tecture, Machinery, or Civil Engineering. In our illustrations, of a foot, as far as it goes, and it may be extended to the laying fig. 1 and 2, we have given an example of a Plane Scale of the down or the measurement of a line longer than the scale itself most useful construction, for there are several varieties in this by doing it by parts as shown above. Thus, if you wished to respect, which we shall have occasion to explain. This example lay down a line of 2:37 feet, that is, 2 feet 3 tenths of a foot is a fac simile of an ivory Plane Scale which has been in our own and 7 hundredths of a foot; you would draw an indefinite possession for more than thirty years, and a more useful instrun straight line, and repeat the length of the scale four times in ment in the solution of practical problems in Mathematics is succession on that line, this would give the length of the 2 not easy to be found. This instrument, although only six feet, then stretch the legs of your compasses so that the disinches long, contains the same Lines as those which are put tance between the two points of the legs may extend from the upon one side of the Gunter s Scale, called the Common Gunter extremity A to the 7th vertical division beyond that marked 30, by sailors who use this instrument, and who solve their problems and this will give the length of the 37 of a foot; next place in Navigation by its means. The Common Gunter is 24 inches this length on the straight line above mentioned, in continualong, and contains on the other side of it, Lines representing tion of the 2 feet already laid down, and you will have a line of the the Logarithms of the numbers which are represented by the whole length of 2.37 feet as required. By comparing the two Lines on the one side just alluded to. In explaining the scales extending from A to B, just explained, at the points where nature and use of the Plane Scale, therefore, we are explaining their divisions coincide, you will see that 5 hundredths of a the nature and use of one side of Gunter's Scale, so useful in foot is 6 tenths of an inch; 10 hundredths or 1 tenth of a foot the study and practice of Navigation. is 1 inch and 2 tenths of an inch; 15 hundredths of a foot is I In fig. 1, from A to B there is a common six inch rule, with inch and 8 tenths of an inch ; 20 hundredths or 2 tenths of a the inches marked on it from 1 to 6 each inch being sub- foot is 2 inches and 4 tenths of an inch; 30 hundredths or divided into tenths of an inch; this, then, is a decimal inch-3 tenths of a foot is 3 inches and 6 tenths of an inch ; 35 scale, and you may measure or lay down the lengths of lines by hundredths of a foot is 4 inches and 2 tenths of an inch ; 40 80 Je prétends vous traiter comme I intend to treat you as my own beginning and in the middle of the words. Welcher Regenschirm haben Sie mon propre fils. RACINE. son. cannot be right. It should be Weichen, accusative masculine to agree with Et le Rhin de ses fots ira grossir And the Rhine will go and swell Regenschirm. We have not time or room to point out more mistakes. la Loire, the Loire with its waves, before the D. D. CAUSALITY: For something of the Art of Photography, see the Avant que tes faveurs sortent de remembrance of thy goodness leaves Majesty's inspector of Weights and Measures in your own district. -A. "Magazine of Art." For proving your Apothecaries weights, apply to her ma mémoire. BOILEAU. my memory. LISPER (D-d): We know of no cure for lisping but a strong effort of the $ 131.—VERBS REQUIRING THE PREPOSITION à BBFORB AN Dictionary will be completed in two divisions-, French-English, which will to speak without lisping.-R. LAMBIB (Glasgow): Cassell's French INFINITIVE. is now published, price 43. in stiff covers, or 53. in cloth. The English French Division will be completed in December. The entire work will be The (s') placed after the verb shows it to be reflective. published, bound, at 8s. 60.-8. GRAHAM (Liverpool): We have had lessons Abaisser (s'), to stoop Etre, être à lire, 1 to be reading, on Floriculture and Horticulture in view, and we shall by no means lose Aboutir, to end in à écrire, &c. ) writing, &c. sight of them.-J. M. (Aberdeen): We have seen some American (U. S.) Accorder (s'), to agree Entendre (s'), to be expert in publications on Book-keeping, and they are so extremely similar to our own, that it is very evident that brother Jonathan is indebted to us for this as Accoutumer, to accustom Evertuer (8'), to strive well as many other lessons relating to the business of human life. There Acharner (:'), to strive Exceller, to ercel is one difference which must be carefully looked into, viz., that of Federal Admettre, to admit, to permit Exciter, to excite Money insiead of Sterling Money. When we come to Exchanges in our Arithmetic, this will be considered; and we shall soon give an inkling of it under the head of Reduction. As to the conversion of the money of differen nations, see Kelly's " Universal Cambist," or Macculloch's Commercial Dictionary."-JAMES WARDLB (Dean Mills): Right. APOLLO (Cheltenham) should apply to R. Cocks and Co., New Burlington. street, about Musical Instruments, &c.-T. CHOPB (Hartland): His sug Apprêter (>'), to prepare Héxiter, to hesitnte gestions are good, and will be considered.-J. HOULDEN, Jr. (Edinr.): The Perpetual Almanac extends only from 1738 to 1830!- INQUISITIVE (Liver. pool) must omit the word of in the sentences to which he refers. As to Assujettir ($), lo subject one's self Inviter, to invite books which are deemed authorities for excellence of style, we say Addison's Attacher (s') to apply Mettre, to set to put papers in the " Spectator," and his writings generally; Dean Swift's “ GulAttendre (s') to expect Mettre (se), to commence liver's Travels," and his writings generally; and Dr. Samuel Johnson's papers in the Rambler." and his writings generally. Macaulay, our most Attendre, to put off Montrer, to shovo, to teach recent historian, is admired for his style, but it is too flippant for us ; those Augmenter (-). to increase Ob-tiner (s'), to persist in of Sir James Macintosh, Dugald Stewart, and Professor Playfair, are vastly Autoriser, to authorise Offrir (s), to offer superior.-G. ARCHBOLD (St. Peter's): Right.-H. S.: We can't tell.-A A vilir (s'), to debase one's self Pencher, lo incline LEARNER (8waffnam): The plants referred to, grow from seeds that pre- ceded them. Griffith's - Chemistry of the Seasons" is good and useful. There Avoir peine, to have difficulty in Persévérer, to persevere is a larger edition that the 4s. one wbich is greatly improved. Balancer, to hesitate Persister, to persist QUINTIN PRINGLE (Glasgow): His solutions of the leak and pine question are correct.-G. S. (Cupai): see p. 223 vol. III., P. E.-J. L. (Duke-st.): Borner (se), to co fine one's self Plaire (se) to delight in Biding 20. vol. 18. 60.-G. J. B'ANVERS had better write to Professor De Prendre plaisir, to take pleasure Lolme.- SANUEL ESQUIRE (Logierail) will find an explanation of his diffi- culties in a note to the Article Duodecimals of the 'Ist vol. of Hutton's Mathematics, at pp. 63 and 64 of the 12th edition.-ZENO (Glasgow): We Condamner (se), to condemn one's Provoquer, ) to urge strongly advise him to persevere at sell education in the midst of all his difficulties and discouragements, as he will be ulumately rewarded. sey Pousser, to urge The errors to which he refere are now corrected. συν becomes συμ when combined with Bovin for the sake of euphony.-G. ELTON (BeatConsister, to consist ton): The writing out of the French Exercises is generally considered Renoncer, to renounce all that is necessary; and the committing of the rules to memory in Conspirer, to conspire Répugner, to be repugnant the best way you can; but we may be allowed to remark that the Consumer, to destroy Résigner (se). to be reconciled writing out of a rule once is equivalent to reading it carefully, at least, siz or seven times.-W. TAYLOR: The best and the cheapest are seldom coinbined. we know of no case where this is certain, but the Bible. Coûter, to cost As to globes, try smith in the Strand.-5.0. (Camberwell): Right.-T. HUNTER should add the study of English to that of Chemistry.-J. RUSSELL (Kingscavil): Received, ERRATA. Vol. III., p. 216, col. I, Ans. to Ex. 14, for 96 read 84. 2, Ans. to Ex. 38, for **1 + read 1+. Encourager, to encourage Tenir, to intend to aim 1, line 49, insert Xaipw, I rejoice. Engager, to induce Travailler, to labour 55, for βλακευτε read βλακευετε, Enhardir, to encourage Viser, to aim 2, 37, for ouv read ouv. Enseigner, to teach Vouer, to devole LITERARY NOTICES. FRENCH. the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, of CASSELL'S FRENCH DICTIONARY: the entire work in two Parts-1. French and Eng- H. Bridgeman, Exq., will be completed in Twenty-six Threepenny Numbers, and will form one handsome Volume of eight hundred and thirty-two pages. Price 88, 6d. bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions may be had separate. HARRIBT STYLE: The German is very correctly translated into English ; not so the English into German, as might bo expected. All substantives volume, price 2s. in stiff covers, or 23. 60. neatly bound in cloth. CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH (from the " Popular Educator"), in a neat should begin with a capital letter, and the final s should not be used anywhere else than at the end of a word. The inverted arrangement, according A KEY TO CABSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCH, containing Translations of all to which the verb is placed at the end of a sentence, only takes place in rela- the Exercises, with numerous relerences to the Grammatical Rules, prico tive and uther subordinate clauses. ls. paper covers, or Is. 6d. cloth. W. MĄBRAISON : We cannot, as we have before said, undertake to correct GERMAN. exercises. Those sent by our correspondent contain a good many errors. In translatlog from German to English, he appears more anxious to make CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY is now issuing in Weekly Numbers, at some sort of sense than to get at the exact meaning of the original. Thus 3d. each; Monthly Parts, 1s. each. he renders: Was sonst als was die Nachtigall einst su der Lerche sagte ? by " Wherefore as the nightingale said to the lark.” The proper transla: 20, in stiff covers, or 2s. 6d. cloth. CASSELL'S LESSONS IN GERMAN (from the " Popular Educator " ), price tion is : " What else than what the nightingale once said to the lark po Again, machte er seinen Gruss unter allen Göttern der Juno zuerst, does MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL WORKS. not mean " he made his salutation to all the gods of Juno first," which is scarcely sense at all, but he made his obeisance to Juno first of all the First sis, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid. Edited by Professor CAASELL'S EUCLID-THE ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRT. Containing the gods (and goddesses).". It is not English to say "those which my brother Wallace, A.M., price ls. in stiff covers, or ls. 6d. neat cloth. in his hands has had." This is carrying literal translation too far. Our correspondent seems to have forgotten that in writing German two dis. CASSELL'S ELEMENTS OF ARITHMETIC (uniform with Cassell's EUCLID) tinct characters are used for the letter &. He puts the final one at the is now ready, price Is. la stiff covers, or is. 6d. neat cloth. 277. . INSTRUMENTAL ARITHMETIC. No. II. mark it; you can then take 5.5 inches from the scale and mark it in a straight line with the former ; then the whole THE PLANE SCALE; ITS CONSTRUCTION AND USE. length will be that of the line of 11.5 inches required, Under the line or rule thus described, there is another consisting of In our first lesson on Instrumental Arithmetic, we explained six inches divided into 5 equal parts, and having these parts the nature and use of an apparatus called the Neperian Abacus. I in like manner subdivided into tenth parts. These parts are In this lesson, we propose to explain the construction and use | marked at every large division, thus : 10, 20, 30, &c., which of the Plane Scale. This scale is usually found in a case or means 10 hundredths, 20 hundredths, 30 hundredths, &c., of a box of Mathematical Instruments, and is one of the most foot, or 1 tenth, 2 tenths, 3 tenihs, &c., of a foot. This, then, useful inventions we know for the purpose of the practical is a decimal scale of a foot, containing tenths and hundredths Mathematician, the Artist, the Mechanical Draughtsman, and of a foot without regard to inches; and from it you may lay the Designer and Drawer of Plans, whether relating to Archi- down or measure lengths of lines very accurately to hundredths tecture, Machinery, or Civil Engineering. In our illustrations, of a foot, as far as it goes, and it may be extended to the laying fig. 1 and 2, we have given an example of a Plane Scale of the down or the measurement of a line longer than the scale itself most useful construction, for there are several varieties in this by doing it by parts as shown above. Thus, if you wished to respect, which we shall have occasion to explain. This example lay down a line of 2.37 feet, that is, 2 feet 3 tenths of a foot is a fac simile of an ivory Plane Scale which has been in our own and 7 hundredths of a foot; you would draw an indefinite possession for more than thirty years, and a more useful instru- straight line, and repeat the length of the scale four times in ment in the solution of practical problems in Mathematics is succession on that line, this would give the length of the 2 not easy to be found. This instrument, although only six feet, then stretch the legs of your compasses so that the disinches long, contains the same Lines as those which are put tance between the two points of the legs may extend from the upon one side of the Gunter s Scale, called the Common Gunter extremity a to the 7th Fertical division beyond that marked 30, by sailors who use this instrument, and who solve their problems and this will give the length of the 37 of a foot ; next place in Navigation by its means. The Common Gunter is 24 inches this length on the straight line above mentioned, in continualong, and contains on the other side of it, Lines representing tion of the 2 feet already laid down, and you will have a line of the the Logarithms of the numbers which are represented by the whole length of 2.37 feet as required. By comparing the two Lines on the one side just alluded to. In explaining the scales extending from A to B, just explained, at the points where nature and use of the Plane Scale, therefore, we are explaining their divisions coincide, you will see that 5 hundredths of a the nature and use of one side of Gunter's Scale, so useful in foot is 6 tenths of an inch; 10 hundredths or 1 tenth of a foot the study and practice of Navigation. is 1 inch and 2 tenths of an inch; 15 hundredths of a foot is 1 In fig. 1, from A to B there is a common six inch rule, with inch and 8 tenths of an inch ; 20 hundredths or 2 tenths of a the inches marked on it from 1 to 6 each inch being sub- foot is 2 inches and 4 tenths of an inch; 30 hundredths or divided into tenths of an inch; this, then, is a decimal inch-3 tenths of a foot is 3 inches and 6 tenths of an inch; 35 scale, and you may measure or lay down the lengths of lines by, hundredths of a foot is 4 inches and 2 tenths of an inch ; 40 its means very accurately to tenths of an inch, as far as it hundredths or 4 tenths of a foor is 4 inches and 8 tenths of an extends. Thus, if you stretch the legs of a pair of compasses, inch ; 45 hundredths of a foot is 5 inches and 4 tenths of an so that the distance between the two points of the legs may inch; and so on, according to the lengih of the scale. extend from the extremity a to the fourth vertical division We come now to the most useful and accurate Scale drawn beyond that marked 3, you have in this distance the measure on this Instrument, fig. 1, we mean the Diagonal Scale of Equal or the length of 3.4 inches or 3it inches. If you wish to Parts. The larger Divisions of this scale are sometimes an measure or lay down a longer line, you can do it from the same inch, as on the Common Gunter, which is 2 feet long; and scale by parts; thus, to ineasure or lay down a line of 11.5 sometimes half an inch as on the Plane Scale, which is only inobes, you can frst take 6 inches complete from the scale and half a foot long. In fig. I the larger divisions from 0 to D are VOL. IV. 80 |